21 September 2007

Taqiya, offiziell

Schreiben wir ein wenig über die Lüge und die Täuschung - für den Islam zwei verschiedene Dinge (1).

Es gibt dazu Texte in einem klassischen Handbuch: Reliance of the Traveller: The Classic Manual of Islamic Sacred Law. (Von der Al Azhar Universität beglaubigte Übersetzung, siehe Kommentare zum Buch auf Amazon und Kommentar bei Wiki)
Auf Seite 744 bis 746 (in diesem Post unter (2) wiedergegeben) lernt man in diesem Buch ganz nette Dinge:

Lügen ist erlaubt im Krieg, um Meinungsverschiedenheiten beizulegen, und zwischen Mann und Frau.

Hat Mohammed selbst gesagt, soll Umm Kulthum gesagt haben, sagt Salih Muslim (ein Hadithensammler), schreibt Ahmad Ibn Lulu Ibn Al-Naqib. Und weiter:
Wenn ein lobenswertes Ziel durch Lügen erreicht werden kann, und nicht durch das Erzählen der Wahrheit, ist Lügen erlaubt, falls das Ziel erlaubt ist.

Was erlaubt ist, definiert natürlich der Islam, nicht unser Gesetz, und wenn es vom Islam erlaubt ist, dann ist es lobenswert. Allerdings sollte man beim Lügen dies bedenken:
Man sollte die negativen Folgen einer Lüge mit denen der Wahrheit vergleichen, und wenn das Erzählen der Wahrheit mehr schadet, darf man lügen.

Man darf sich einfach nicht erwischen lassen, heisst das.

Soviel zum allgemeinen Lügen, das erlaubt ist. Und dann gibt es natürlich noch das Lügen, das vorgeschrieben ist. Es ist obligatorisch zu lügen, wenn das Ziel obligatorisch ist. Die Verbreitung des Islams zum Beispiel. Dafür muss man lügen, wo es nötig ist.
Und wo es etwas gefährlich ist zu lügen, soll man zum Vortäuschen greifen. Täuschen gehört nämlich im Islam nicht zum Lügen. Es ist bloß die Methode, Wörter so zu verwenden, dass sie den Zuhörer irreführen. Diese Technik ist offensichtlich so wichtig, dass im “Reliance of the Traveller” dafür ein separates Thema eröffnet wird. Die Irreführung wird als “sichere Alternative” zur Lüge bezeichnet. (S.748, in diesem Post unter (2) wiedergegeben)

Alles klar? Auf deutsch sagt man dem Nebeldeutsch.

(1) Der Text wurde in anderem Zusammenhang in PI publiziert: klickmich. Hier wird er der Vollständigkeit halber gebracht. Ausserdem sind unten die entsprechenden Auszüge aus Reliance of the Traveller zu finden.

(2) Die Texte:

Zur Lüge ["p24" und ähnliche Bezeichner beziehen sich auf andere Stellen im Reliance of the Traveller]:
Hervorhebungen durch Nebeldeutsch


Primary texts from the Koran and sunna that it is unlawful to lie (dis: p24) are both numerous and intersubstantiative, it being among the ugliest sins and most disgusting faults.
Because of the scholarly consensus of the Community (Umma) that it is prohibited and the unanimity and amount of the primary textual evidence, there is little need to cite particular examples thereof, our only concern here being to explain the exceptions to what is considered lying, and apprise of the details.

The Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) said,

"He who settles disagreements between people to bring about good or says something commendable is not a liar."

This much is related by both Bukhari and Muslim, with Muslim's version recording that Umm Kulthum added,

"I did not hear him permit untruth in anything people say, except for three things: war, settling disagreements, and a man talking with his wife or she with him (in smoothing over divergences)."

This is an explicit statement that lying is sometimes permissible for a given interest, scholars having established criteria defining what types of it are lawful. The best analysis of it I have seen is by Imam Abu Hamid Ghazali, who says: "Speaking is a means to achieve objectives. If a praiseworthy aim is attainable through both telling the truth and lying, it is unlawful to accomplish through lying because there is no need for it. When it is possible to achieve such an aim by lying but not by telling the truth, it is permissible to lie if attaining the goal is permissible (N: i.e. when the pupose of lying is to circumvent someone who is preventing one from doing something permissible), and obligatory to lie if the goal is obligatory. When, for example, one is concealing a Muslim from an oppressor who asks where he is, it is obligatory to lie about his being hidden. Or when a person deposits an article with one for safekeeping and an oppressor wanting to appropriate it inquires about it, it is obligatory to lie about having concealed it, for if one informs him about the article and he then seizes it, one is financially liable (A: to the owner) to cover the article's cost. Whether the purpose is war, settling a disagreement, or gaining the sympathy of a victim legally entitled to retaliate against one so that he will forbear to do so; it is not unlawful to lie when any of these aims can only be attained through lying.
But it is religiously more precautionary (def: c6.5) in all such cases to employ words that give a misleading impression, meaning to intend by one's words something that is literally true, in respect to which one is not lying (def: rlU.2), while the outward purport of the words deceives the hearer, though even if one does not have such an intentionand merely lies without intending anything else, it is not unlawful in the above circumstances.
„This is true of every expression connected with a legitimating desired end, whether one's own or another's. An example of a legitimating end of one's own is when an oppressor intending to appropriate one's property inquires about it, in which case one may deny it. Or if a ruler asks one about a wicked act one has committed that is solely betwecn oneself and Allah Most High (N: i.e. it does not concern the rights of another), in which case one is entitled to disclaim it, such as by saying, 'l did not commit fornication,` or 'I did not drink.' There are many well known hadiths in which those who admitted they deserved punishment were given prompting (A: by the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace)) to retract their confessions. An example of a legitimating desired end of another is when one is asked about another's secret and one disacknowledges it. And so on. One should compare the bad consequences entailed by lying to those entailed by telling the truth, and if the consequences of telling the truth are more damaging, one is entitled to lie, though if the reverse is true or if one does not know which entails more damage, then lying is unlawful.
Whenever lying is permissible, if the factor which permits it is a desired end of one's own, it is recom-
mended not to lie, but when the factor that permits it is the desired end of another, it is not lawful to infringe upon his rights. Strictness (as opposed to the above dispensations (rukhsa, def: c6.2)) is to forgo lying in every case where it is not legally obligatory."

zur ganz gewöhnlichen Täuschung:

Giving a misleading impression is among the most important topics, being frequently met with and often abused. It befits us to examine the matter closely, and whoever learns of it should reflect upon it and apply it. Having previously mentioned that lying is severely prohibited, and the danger that exists in saying something without any particular intention, what follows below shows a safe alternative to these.

Giving a misleading impression means to utter an expression that ostensibly implies one meaning, while intending a different meaning the expression may also have, one that contradicts the ostensive purport. It is a kind of deception.
(It often takes the form of the speaker intending a specific referent while the hearer understands a more general one, as when a person asks a householder, "Is So-and-so here?" to which the householder, intending the space between himself and the questioner rather than the space inside the house, replies, "He is not here.")

Scholars say that there is no harm in giving a misleading impression if required by an interest countenanced by Sacred Law that is more important than not misleading the person being addressed, or if there is a pressing need which could not otherwise be fulfilled except through lying. When neither of these is the case, giving a misleading impression is offensive though not unlawful unless used as a means for wrongful gain or suppressing another's right, in which case it becomes unlawful. The above determine its permissibility. As for the hadith evidence, some of which permits it and some of which does not, it is to be interpreted in the light of the above criteria.

Jihadwatch: American Muslim writer: Islam rejects lying and deception in all forms, except when it doesn't
Hamas: Wir als Muslime dürfen lügen

PI: Anleitung zum Betrug

Jihadwatch: Raymond Ibrahim: "Islam's Doctrines of Deception"


1u57u5 hat gesagt…

Danke! Kurz und schlüssig! Weiter so.

Mustasim hat gesagt…

Ahadith ist leider nicht die Grundlage des Islams. Damit war deine ganze Mühe umsonst. Der Islam erlaubt keine Lügen im Namen der Religion:

Und mischt nicht Wahrheit mit Unrecht durcheinander! Und verschweigt nicht die Wahrheit, wo ihr (sie) doch kennt. (Koran 2:36)

FreeSpeech hat gesagt…

Wenn du das sagst, wird's wahr sein.


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